Crown Dependencies are Crown possessions, unlike the Overseas Territories of the United Kingdom.  They comprise three independently administered jurisdictions: the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. By mutual agreement, the British Government administers the foreign affairs and defence of the islands, and the British Parliament has the power to legislate on its behalf. Following the signing of the Agreement, the Government of the United Kingdom published and deposited the British Instrument of Ratification of the Agreement on 29 January 2020.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union took place on 31 January 2020 to 11 .m. GMT entered into force and, at that time, the Withdrawal Agreement entered into force in accordance with Article 185. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the United Nations, NATO, AUKUS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Interpol and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). It was a member of the European Communities (EC) and its successor, the European Union (EU), from its accession in 1973 to its withdrawal in 2020 after a referendum in 2016. Following an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MPs decided that the UK government had ignored Parliament by refusing to give Parliament all the legal advice it had received on the impact of its proposed withdrawal conditions.
 The key point of the Recommendation concerned the legal effect of the “backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the UK with regard to the EU-UK customs border and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that had led to an end to the unrest in Northern Ireland – and in particular whether the UK would be safe, to be able to leave the EU in a practical sense, according to the proposed plans. The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border regulations and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. .